PCB, so called printed circuit board, are offering a base that can connect electronic components. It's color has no direct relation with its performance, the choice of solder mask color has no impact on electric performance. PCB electric performance mainly relates to its material, layout design and layer stack up.
But, black PCB are most likely to have color difference during PCB washing process, and PCB washing is an essential process nearly in all PCB manufacturing procedures. That means black PCB has the highest failure rate during manufacturing process, it will result in cost rise up.
The material for PCB manufacturing is fiber glass and epoxy. Combining these two materials together and form to a board which is not bendable, non-conductive and heat resistant--circuit board. Obviously only the base board can not conduct signals so PCB suppliers will cover the surface with a layer of copper, that's why PCB substrate also called copper clad.
Black PCB trace is relatively hard to recognize and it makes repair and maintainance job harder, so a company with no superioer PCB layout engineer often do not choose black as its PCB color. For a company who use black PCB, it means it has enough confidence on its R&D and aftersale service team, in addition it has good confidence on its PCB vendor.
The conclusion is, PCB color has no relation with its performance, but PCB user often choose green, blue and red as its PCB color only because to increase its good PCB rate and lower manufacturing cost, yet also for easier PCB repair work.
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